Module 5 – Chapter 10

Stitch to translate

Using the rubbings made in chapter 9, I made some stitch samples, shown below.

imageImage 10.1  – rubbing from paper relief.  I chose this rubbing because of the strong horizontal lines with knot marks which I thought would be interesting to interpret in stitch.

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Image 10.2

For sample 10.2 I used Feather Stitch in three different threads.  Using stitches in different sizes, I created horizontal lines with very small stitches in places to represent the knot marks on the paper rubbing.  The threads I used were a linen thread, a tasselled cotton yarn and mohair yarn.  I was particularly pleased with the fractured effect that the tasselled yarn produced.

image   Image 10.3 – from left, clockwise; stitched sample, paper relief, rubbing.

image Image 10.4 – paper rubbing.  The main element that I wanted to recreate in this sample was the rows of upright lines of different lengths image 10.5 – stitched sample.  I chose to use a linen thread as it gives strong clean lines, and used Buttonhole Stitch.  I was pleased with the way in which this sample, inadvertently, strongly represented the original source photo from Chapter 1,  i.e.  row of blocks of stone.

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Image 10.6 – from top, clockwise:  stitched sample, rubbing, paper relief.

 

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Image 10.7 – rubbing from fabric sample. I decided to try making some rubbings from some of my fabric relief samples as well as the paper ones.  I was very pleased with this one as it produced very clean shapes.

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Image 10.8 – I used large Detached Chain Stitches in a cotton thread and used some tiny stitches to attach the sides of the stitches to the backing fabric to create these strong circular shapes.

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Image 10.9 – from left clockwise: stitch sample, fabric relief, rubbing.

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Image 10.10 – for my final sample I chose this rubbing as it offered a contrast to the previous ones.  This was also taken from one of my fabric samples, and produced these clusters of small lines fanning out from a point.

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Image 10.11 – I used Fly Stitch in a very fine cotton thread and created these clusters of stitches.

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Image 10.12 – from left: stitch sample, fabric sample, paper rubbing.

I very much enjoyed this chapter.  The process of moving away from the original source material has been fascinating i.e. by creating a paper relief, then a fabric relief, then a rubbing, then a stitched sample.  Following these steps away from the original source using these techniques has helped me to create some stitched marks which I would never have thought of originally, and yet which relate strongly to the original source photographs. 

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Module 5 – Chapter 9

Threads and stitchery

In this chapter I explored the effects that can be achieved by using stitches for mark making.  To begin with I used Mary Thomas’s  “Dictionary of Embroidery Stitches” to practice  some familiar stitches, and learn a few new ones.  Image 9.1 below shows a key to the stitches that I learned, which are shown in image 9.2.

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Image 9.1 – key to stitches

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Image 9.2 – stitch sampler

I chose to use fly stitch to try some formal and informal ways of mark making.  I used a long strip of black cotton fabric and a variety of white threads, shown in image 9.3 below

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Image 9.3

image Image 9.4 – fly stitch worked as individual stitches, in a linear pattern. in different directions, in different sizes.

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Image 9.5 – fly stitch in alternate directions and lengths to create stripes, in groups, loose and overlapping, small and overlapping

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Image 9.6 – Fly stitch dovetailed together in different threads and in blocks, couching  a cord, in twisted cord.

I then tried some less formal ways of using Fly stitch.

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Image 9.7 – Fly stitch – loose and overlapping in two different threads

image Image 9.8 – the stitch on the left was left very loose to create pebble like shapes, and on the right a variety of stitch sizes was used in alternate directions which created this chevron effect.

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Image 9.9- a less formal version of 9.5 – fly stitch in alternate directions and lengths to create stripes with two threads on top of each other

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Image 9.10 – informal couching fly stitch.  I was very pleased with the way that this could be used to look like cracks and fissures in a rock.

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Image 9.11 – I had some scraps of silk selvedge and tried a couple of stitches with that, creating these marks that look a little like sycamore keys.

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Image 9.12 – mohair wool created a pleasingly blurred effect

 

Rubbings from relief surfaces

Going back to the paper relief samples I made earlier, and some of the fabric relief samples, I experimented in making rubbings to identify some marks that could be used as a design source for stitching in chapter 10.  The images below show some of the most effective rubbings.  These were made with oil pastels on black tissue paper.

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Image 9.13

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Image 9.14

Images 9.15 – 18 below show the samples that I will use in chapter 10 for stitching.

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Image 9.15

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Image 9.16

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Image 9.17

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Image 9.18

I am pleased with the samples that I have selected to take forward to stitching as they offer the opportunity to use a range of size and type of stitches.

Module 5 – Chapter 8

 Paper relief into fabric relief

In this chapter, I translated five of the paper relief samples that I made in chapter 3, into fabric; two fabric samples of each paper relief sample.

image Image 8.1

Image 8.1 shows a paper relief sample that I made to represent some cobble-like rocks.

image Image 8.2

Image 8.2 shows my first fabric relief sample.  This was made from cotton lawn which I gathered using a grid of machine stitches.  The grid had irregular sized sections i.e. some rows of stitching were closer than others.  I pulled the gathering threads and then pushed the resulting puffed-up sections through to one side with my finger.  I then placed some cotton wadding behind the lawn fabric and used free embroidery to stitch around the gathered sections.   This technique created some beautifully creased raised areas which I felt represented the cobbles well.  If I were to use this technique again, I would try to make the gathered sections more varied in size and shape i.e. fewer straight lines, to create more natural cobble shapes.  I would also make the black stitching around the rocks much heavier.

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Image 8.3

In my second sample, in image 8.3, I cut some rounded pieces of Lutradur and then heated them with a hot-air gun until they curled at the edges and contracted.  I then stitched these pieces on to a black cotton background.  Whilst I think that this technique created some interesting stone-shaped pieces, I don’t think the overall result was as effective as 8.2 as the black negative shape around the ‘rocks’ looks less like the paper relief sample.

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Image 8.4 – both samples in a frame made with prints of my source photograph and paper relief sample.

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Image 8.5 – From top left, clockwise:  paper relief; source photo of rocks; Lutradur sample; gathered sample.

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Image 8.6 – paper relief

Image 8.6 shows a paper relief sample that I made to represent the same cobble-like rocks as in 8.1. 

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Image 8.7

Image 8.7 shows my first fabric interpretation of 8.6.  I used a synthetic organza fabric and cut out several rounded shapes.  I layered these shapes on to a black background so that they weren’t directly on top of each other in order to create some variation in the shades of white i.e. a stronger white where there are more layers.   I then applied a top layer of the same fabric and hand-stitched around each of the shapes.

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Image 8.8

Image 8.8 shows my second interpretation.  For this I cut rounded shapes out of a loosely woven linen-type fabric and frayed the edges.  I saved the withdrawn threads and sprinkled these on to a black cotton background and then placed the frayed shapes on top.  I then placed a layer of wonderweb and ironed the pieces in place.  Finally I ironed a layer of synthetic organza on top.

imageImage 8.9

Image 8.9 shows the two samples in a frame made with prints of my source photograph and paper relief sample.

image Image 8.10 – From top left, clockwise:  source photo of rocks; paper relief; frayed sample; layered sample. 

Of the two samples, I think that the frayed version (bottom right in 8.10) most closely represents the paper relief sample as the loose threads give the impression of the creases in the paper version.

image Image 8.11

Image 8.11 shows a paper relief sample that I made to represent some layers of block-like rock strata

image Image 8.12

The sample in 8.12 was created by using reverse appliqué by layering five different types of fabric (synthetic organza, cotton lawn, nylon toile, scrim and linen) and machine stitching a series of lines all in the same direction to create stripes.  I then cut away various layers of the fabric to reveal the different fabrics, and then cut the piece into strips and attached them to a black fabric background.   I was pleased with the different textures and depths of tone created by this method.  However, I wasn’t so pleased with the sharp edges where the strips were cut; a more organic appearance could have been created by using a looser weave fabric on the base and fraying the edges more.

image Image 8.13

In sample 8.13, I created a series of different sized tucks on a piece of synthetic organza.  I then cut strips of various widths across the piece, and attached them to a black fabric background.  Whilst this was a very simple technique, I was pleased with the 3D effect achieved due to the stiffness of the fabric causing the tucks to stand proud.

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Image 8.14 – shows the two samples in a frame made with prints of my source photograph and paper relief sample.

image Image 8.15 – From top left, clockwise:  source photo of rocks; paper relief; reverse appliqué sample; tuck sample

image Image 8.16 – my paper relief sample of the same rocks shown top left in 8.15 above.

image Image 8.17 – I used a loose weave synthetic fabric and stitched some curved tucks which varied in width along their length.  I then hand stitched them in various ways to create a bumpy texture.  The most effective way I found was to make a series of backstitches with the thread mainly inside the tuck. By pulling the stitches tight as I went along I created small gathers in the tucks.

image Image 8.18 – in this sample I created a background using cotton scrim onto which I stitched a series of curved pin tucks, and adhered it to a black piece of card. I then took some long strips of the scrim, twisted and knotted them and painted them with gesso to give them a harder texture.   I tried covering this whole sample with a piece of organza as I thought it might unify the different elements, but a lot of the detail was lost and so I decided to leave it as it was.

image Image 8.19 – shows the two samples in a frame made with prints of my source photograph and paper relief sample.

image Image 8.20 – From top left, clockwise:  source photo of rocks; paper relief; tuck sample; twisted and knotted sample.

image Image 8.21- paper relief of some shale rock

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Image 8.22- I used a backing of wadding and machine stitched slithers of various fabrics to it.  The slithers overlapped each other and twisted in places.  I was pleased with the irregular horizontal stripes that this technique produced.

image Image 8.23- I used slashed reverse appliqué for this sample.  I used six layers of fabrics, all of which were woven so that they would fray and some of which were synthetic so that they could be melted.  After stitching curved lines on top of the layers, I cut through and created a chenille effect by roughly brushing the edges.  I then used a soldering iron to melt some of the synthetic edges to add some more interest to the textures.  I was very pleased with this sample as it had some depth as well as the horizontal stripes that I was trying to achieve.

image Image 8.24 – shows the two samples in a frame made with prints of my source photograph and paper relief sample.

image  Image 8.25 – from top left clockwise; original source photo of shale rock; paper relief; chenille sample, stitched layers sample.

Module 5 – Chapter 7

 Tactile contrasts

In this chapter I made an experimental sampler using different fabrics in different manipulative ways. The aim was to produce  a range of textures that looked, but more importantly, felt very different to each other.

I cut some foam board into 2in squares and mounted my samples on to them.

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Image 7.1

Top row:

  • Left:  Cotton lawn, gathered around small buttons.
  • Centre:  lightweight calico, gathered with narrow bands of machine stitching, gathered.
  • Right:  synthetic organza stitched into tucks,  gathered, melted in places with a soldering iron, and then drips of hot glue added.

Bottom row:

  • Left:  calico back, nylon tulle top, stitched into circles, padded from back with synthetic wadding.
  • Centre: Rolls of cotton lawn, twisted tight until they twisted into loops.
  • Right: cotton lawn with cord quilting.

image Image 7.2

Top row:

  • Left:  synthetic course weave fabric, twisted and stitched into peaks.
  • Centre: buttons gathered into fabric as before, but this is the rear of the fabric.
  • Right:  wool felt, folded into 1 inch high pleats, snipped and some of the sections were opened out whilst others were kept folded.

Bottom row:

  • Left:  synthetic organza stitched with grid of gathering threads
  • Centre:  synthetic course weave fabric, stitched with firm tucks and loops of cotton stitched in to the tucks.
  • Right:  strips of cotton scrim with threads withdrawn along length to create soft frayed edges, gathered and stitched to base fabric to create fluffy soft texture.

image Image 7.3

  • Left:  calico pleated at one corner
  • Centre: cotton scrim with synthetic wadding gathered into balls
  • Right:  cotton lawn hand quilted using cotton wadding and calico base.

This chapter was great fun, and I was pleased to have created a range of textures by using different weights of fabric, different types of fabrics, and different manipulations to create a variety of surfaces.

Module 5 – Chapter 6

 Tucks, pleats and gathers

In this chapter I experimented with the different effects that can be achieved using different fabrics and tucks, pleats and gathers.

I started with machine stitching on a long strip of cotton lawn shown below.

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Image 6.1

From the top:

  • Basic straight tuck – 3 rows
  • Box pleat
  • High tuck with 3rows of stitching
  • Tuck filled with piping cord
  • Narrow pin tucks – 3 rows
  • Zig-zag stitched tuck
  • Wavy pin tucks
  • Filled tucks with bits cut away to reveal the filling of loose silk threads

image Image 6.2

From top:

  • Twin needle tucks, curved – 4 rows
  • Twin needle padded tuck using 3rd thread – 4 rows
  • Tuck turned side to side – 2 rows
  • Straight tuck snipped into fringe
  • Short tucks crossing each other

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Image 6.3 a and 6.3 b

From top:

  • Twin needle tucks overlapping
  • Zig-zag stitch tucks with 3 different size stitches
  • Box pleat with snipped sections pressed open
  • High tuck folded into angles and stitched flat
  • Snipped tuck with ends tied with threads

When I look back at some of my landscape textures in chapter 1 (shown in 6.3 b above), I can already see how such simple techniques can be applied to represent natural textures.

Next I tried some hand stitched samples using a synthetic transparent fabric.

imageImage 6.4 – Hand stitched tucks on transparent fabric

Clockwise from top left:

  • Dart shaped tucks
  • Double tuck
  • Pin tuck
  • Box pleat
  • Stuffed tuck
  • Straight tucks
  • Overlapping narrow tucks
  • Straight tucks top stitched to make them wavy

I liked the changes in tone created by the folds in the transparent fabric which wasn’t evident in the cotton lawn samples. 

Combined tucks

Next I explored combining different methods of creating tucks and pleats. image Image 6.5

From top:

  • Transparent fabric; stitched with twin needle rows first, then machine gathered parallel to the tucks
  • Transparent fabric; Corded tucks using twin needle and 3rd thread, then diagonal pin tucks stitched across
  • Cotton lawn, corded tucks using twin needle and 3rd thread, then the fabric was cut into strips, alternate strips were reversed and stitched back together.

I was pleased with all three of these samples.  I could see how they could be used to represent the different plates and strata of rocks in my source photographs.  Whilst I am not particularly keen on the feel or look of the synthetic fabric, it does work well in terms of having body and holding raised shapes well when gathered (in the top and middle samples in 6.5.)

image Image 6.6

From the top:

  • Scrim stitched with filled tucks, the pin tucks stitched across them.  Whilst the semi-transparent nature of the scrim produced interesting changes in tone where the fabric was doubled, it wasn’t good at holding shapes.
  • Fine linen, pin tucks stitched along the length, then stitch lines in a grid were gathered to create ‘puffed up’ sections, a bit like seersucker.  I was very pleased with the texture created using this very simple technique.
  • Cotton lawn stitched with straight tucks, alternate ones were slashed with a seam ripper , then cut into squares and re-stitched together.

Gathers

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Image 6.7 – Calico, machine stitched strips gathered at irregular intervals

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Image 6.8 – coarsely woven synthetic fabric, machine stitched to gather, then zig-zagged over, then some threads withdrawn to make holes.  This produced an interestingly textured sample.

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Image 6.9 – hand pleated calico, stitched at each end, then the edges painted.  The stiff calico worked well for this quite structural piece and I think the paint on the edge helped to accentuate the form.

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Image 6.10 – calico, 5 tiers of pleats.  I gathered underneath each tier to make the tier above raise up. 

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Image 6.11 – coarsely woven synthetic fabric, threads pulled to create gathers.  This created some useful pebble shapes.

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Image 6.12 – cord zig-zagged over to gather

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Image 6.13 – transparent fabric strip gathered using wire, then twisted into spiral

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Image 6.14 – transparent fabric, stitched in spiral then gathered to make cone shape – a bit like a jellyfish!

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Image 6.15 – cotton lawn, Machine stitched gathers, then stitched over in places.  This didn’t work particularly well.  The lines and folds created were more subtle than I was aiming for.  Using much larger gathering stitches would have produced a more dramatic effect.

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6.16 – transparent fabric machine gathered in grid.  I was very pleased with this very lively texture and can imagine using it if I decide to represent some of the seaweed textures in my source photographs as the ‘bubbles’ formed look quite like the pods and sacks in seaweed.

My next few experiments were made using shirring elastic.

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6.17 and 6.18 – Cotton lawn shirring elastic in bobbin, free-embroidery circles, front and back of fabric.  I was very pleased with the lovely, inviting tunnels created on the back of this sample.

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6.19 – Cotton lawn shirring elastic in bobbin, stitched in grid

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6.20 – Cotton lawn shirring elastic in bobbin, stitched in bands

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6.21 – Cotton lawn shirring elastic in bobbin, stitched in wavy lines

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6.22 – Cotton lawn shirring elastic in bobbin, stitched in wide zig-zag lines

This was another really interesting chapter which has given me lots of food for thought for my final assessed piece.

Module 5 – Chapter 5

 Quilting, padding and stuffing

Wadded quilting:  this is the method of quilting with which I am most familiar i.e. three layers stitched together.
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Image 5.1 – cotton lawn top, cotton wadding, calico base.  Stitched in grid design using contrast thread

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Image 5.2 – a scrap of eco-dyed scrim top, cotton wadding, calico base.  Stitched using contrast thread using free machine embroidery.

image Image 5.3 – brushed cotton top, double layer of cotton wadding, calico  base.  Stitched using white cotton.  This produced a very soft sample with quite high loft due to the double layer of wadding and the softness of the fabric.

image Image 5.4 – synthetic organza top, strips of sari silk as wadding, calico base.  Stitched  with white thread.  use of this semi-transparent top enabled the colour variations and folds in the silk wadding to show through.

image Image 5.5 – cotton scrim top, cotton fishing net wadding, calico base.  The netting was placed on irregularly i.e. there were thick and thin patches. This was quite heavily quilted in places with white thread in some places, and less so in others to add to the variation in the height of the loft.  I then snipped it in places to reveal the netting, which was found on the same beach as the rocks in my photographs in chapter 1.  This is one of my favourite samples.  The use of natural fibres and variety of smooth/low patches and higher patches with the net bursting through create a very exciting surface.

image Image 5.6 – Synthetic organza top, tissue paper strips as wadding, calico base.  Stitched in white thread in shapes similar to the torn paper pieces.  This produced a very flat, smooth sample.

image Image 5.7 –  synthetic organza top, strips of knotted cotton lawn as wadding, calico base.  Stitched along the length of the wadding strips and then melted in places to reveal the wadding.  The textures of this sample were quite pleasing i.e. the bumps formed by the knots, the edges of the strips poking through the top layer, and the burned edges of the synthetic top.

image Image 5.8 – cotton lawn top. cotton wadding, calico base.  Stitched in double lines (not a twin needle) with white thread  and then punched with large tapestry needle to make holes.  I was surprised at how effective the needle punch holes were.  I can imagine this technique being used in my final piece to represent pebble areas.

 Shaped quilting – for these samples I used a base fabric, added shapes made from various materials and then a top layer.

image Image 5.9 – cotton scrim top, pieces of sea-smoothed pottery (also found on the same beach) and a calico base.  Stitched with blue thread using free machine embroidery to fill the spaces around the shapes.  I chose blue thread to echo the pale willow pattern on some of the pottery.

image Image 5.10 – polythene top, map pieces as filling, calico base.   Stitched around the shapes with white thread.

image Image 5.11 – tights fabric top, slices of silk pod as filling, calico base.  Stitched using free machine embroidery to fill the space around the shapes.  I pulled the fabric tight over the silk pods to create dish-type shapes.  I quite liked the slightly alien appearance of this sample.

image Image 5.12 – nylon netting top, cords of twisted threads as filling, stiff Aida base.  Stitched along the sides of the shapes to hold them in place, and then snipped in places to further reveal some of the threads and add more texture.

image Image 5.13 – silk chiffon top, haberdashery items as filling, calico base.  Stitched in white to outline the shapes.

image Image 5.14 – synthetic organza top with large needle holes punched in it, knotted yarn filling, calico base.  Stitched in white to outline the shapes.

image Image 5.15 – plastic vegetable netting top, cotton wool filling, calico base.  Stitched in white thread.

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Image 5.16 – synthetic organza top, small balls of wool fleece as filling, black cotton base.  Stitched with white thread through a twin needle to create dense areas of stitching.

Padded quilting – for these samples I used a base layer and top layer, and then added stuffing afterwards.

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Image 5.17 – cotton jersey top on calico base.  I stitched these enclosed shapes and then slit the calico on the back and inserted synthetic wadding to fill the shapes, and then stitched the slits closed.  I was pleased with the beautifully smooth, rounded shapes created with this technique and with the use of a twin needle to create an outline around the shapes.

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Image 5.18 – synthetic organza top on a calico base.  I stitched the leaf shape and then stuffed it from a slit in the base fabric using a mixture of cut threads.

Corded quilting

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Image 5.19 – this sample has just one layer of fabric, I used calico.  The cording was created using a twin needle and a thick thread fed through the hole in the footplate of my sewing machine.  This was the first time I have used this technique and am very impressed with the simple texture that can be added to a piece of fabric in this way.

imageImage 5.20 – in this sample I combined a couple of techniques i.e. corded and shaped quilting.  I used a calico base, pale grey synthetic top and tiny balls of wool fleece as the shapes which I stitched around with cord through a twin needle.  I am pleased with the landscape-like effect that this has produced.  I had a go at trying to melt the surface of this sample with a candle which wasn’t particularly successful.  I was hoping the fabric would pucker and shrink over the filling but it just melted into holes.  I have ordered a hot air gun and will try again when it has been delivered to see if a more controllable heat source is more effective.

image Image 5.21 – in this final sample I used cotton lawn, loosened the bobbin tension and then cord quilted from both sides of the fabric.  I then unthreaded the machine and stitched through the fabric to produce needle marks.  I was very pleased with the sketch-like effect produced.

I have really enjoyed this chapter.  My introduction to textile art was through quilting.  I visited the Festival of Quilts and saw some of the workshops run by people doing strange and interesting things to fabric which made me want to know more!  Using these three methods of quilting in explorative ways, ‘with non-standard’ materials, has been very informative about how they can be used to represent different textures.

Module 5 – Chapter 4

Fabric investigation

In this chapter I explored different types of fabrics and how they respond to different treatments such as stretching, fraying and exposure to a direct flame.

I collected samples of a variety of fabrics, both natural and synthetic as shown in images 4.1 and 4.2 below.  The code  W or NW refers to whether the fabric is woven or non-woven.

image Image 4.1

 

From left top to bottom:  Coarse linen W, Fine linen W,  loose weave fabric (synthetic) W, silk mesh W (synthetic) , Bondaweb NW (synthetic), interfacing NW (synthetic).

From right, top to bottom: Cotton / polyester batting NW (part synthetic), wool felt NW, brushed cotton W, fine cotton lawn W, lightweight calico W.

image Image 4.2

From left top to bottom:  silk dupion W, sari silk W, cotton muslin W, sheer nylon (synthetic) W,  synthetic organza W.

From right, top to bottom: synthetic sparkly organza W, silk chiffon W, silk organza W, curtain tape W (synthetic), velcro  NW (synthetic), cotton interfacing W, pelmet stiffener NW (synthetic).

I then selected four fabrics to investigate their qualities further.

image Image 4.3

Fabric Interfacing – synthetic – non woven
Creasing Doesn’t crease easily, creases spring out when released
Stretching Doesn’t stretch along the length, pulls apart on the bias
Fraying Pulls apart to create a fibrous edge; shorter fibres exposed when frayed on the bias than sideways
Melting Melts easily, creates a hard blackened edge; Puckers when held close to heat source

image Image 4.4

Fabric Wadding – cotton/polyester mix – non woven
Creasing Doesn’t crease
Stretching Doesn’t stretch , pulls apart easily
Fraying Doesn’t fray, pulls apart to create a soft edge; the same in all directions
Melting Doesn’t melt despite some synthetic content. Smoulders and turns black.

image Image 4.5

Fabric Synthetic loose weave, woven
Creasing Doesn’t crease much
Stretching Doesn’t stretch along or across the weave, stretches a lot on bias
Fraying Frays very easily.  Edge along the bias can be frayed easily.
Melting Melts easily and creates hard edge which seals it and stops fraying.  Doesn’t pucker when held near heat.

image Image 4.6

Fabric Synthetic organza, woven
Creasing Doesn’t crease much, retains feint creases when released
Stretching Doesn’t stretch along or across the weave, stretches a lot on bias
Fraying Frays very easily.  Edge along the bias can be frayed easily.
Melting Melts easily and creates hard edge which seals it and stops fraying.  Puckers when held near heat.

Next I explored how different techniques can be applied to create a variety of edges on fabric:

image Image 4.7

From top to bottom:

  1. Synthetic loose weave, frayed and cut
  2. Synthetic interfacing, melted
  3. Cotton lawn, scallop edge machine embroidery
  4. Cotton scrim, snipped and twisted
  5. Linen, frayed and cut
  6. Synthetic yarn, knotted and twisted
  7. Synthetic organza with corded edge
  8. Silk, gathered and twisted
  9. Synthetic netting, twisted and stitched over
  10. Linen, zig-zag stitched with loops pulled from machine thread
  11. Chiffon, knotted and stuffed with yarn
  12. Wool felt, snipped and twisted
  13. Wool felt, snipped and folded

This experimentation has increased my understanding of the qualities of different types, weights and structures of fabric, and how these can be used to artistic effect.