Module 5 – Health and Safety


Safety precaution

Machine stitching

Use chair with back support and easy access to pedal.

Keep flexes out of the way of tripping or damaging wires.

Mono printing

Protect surfaces with newspaper to stop inks and paints transferring where not wanted

Rust dying

Wear protective gloves and clothes

Use a container that will not be used for cooking e.g. an old saucepan or bucket

Cutting with blade / rotary cutter

Use self-healing mat

Put cover on blade when not in use

Cut away from yourself


Protect surfaces.

Do not touch wet glue when using hot glue gun


Switch off when not in use

Ensure flex is not trailing to cause trip hazard


Module 5 – Costs and time spent

Module 5


Time (hours)




Photo printing £4.00



Various papers – already had these – used about £2 worth






Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £1 worth



Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £3 worth



Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £2 worth



Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £2 worth



Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £2 worth



Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £3 worth






Various papers – already had these – used about £2 worth



Various fabrics – l already had these – used about £10 worth




Module 5 – Evaluation

The completed embroidered assessment piece for Module 5 is a depiction of rocks on a coastline based on the design topic of textures in landscape.

Do you feel satisfied with the results?


If yes, which parts in particular?

  • The contrasts between the four sections whereby two have larger, block shapes and two are linear.  Whilst the sections are different, I feel that they blend together well to create a cohesive piece because of the similar fabrics and colours.
  • The colouring of the fabrics which was all done using rusted objects found on the beach that I used as the basis for my design.  I ensured that some areas of fabric were more heavily rusted to ensure contrasts in the colours between sections.
  • The sections of dense stitching on the bottom section which makes the boulder shapes more pronounced.
  • The discrete lettering in one of the slashed sections…one has to look for it in the same way that one has to look for the fossils in the rock-face that the piece is depicting.

Is it fit for its purpose?

Yes.  The piece showcases four areas created from different fabric manipulation methods.  There are contrasts between each of the areas, both in shape, and in height; the bottom section is very flat whilst the block shaped ‘cushions’ stand proud of the backing cloth.  Whilst it clearly represents the textures in the original source photographs, it has been made more abstract through the stages of the design process. 

 If you were asked to make it again, what changes would you make to the way you designed it?

I don’t think I would change anything in the way it was designed.   I found the process very useful whereby each chapter created a more abstract depiction of the source material e.g. by basing a stitch sample on a rubbing of a paper manipulation based on the source photo…each step took me one stage further into looking at shape and texture rather than seeing the obvious features in the photo.  Throughout each chapter I had in the back of my mind that I wanted to depict the different types of rock on the beach cliffs, and so was imaging each technique (e.g. the various paper manipulations) translated into fabric.  By the end I was very excited to select a few techniques to use in the final piece.

If you were asked to make it again, what changes would you make to to the way you made it?

 I struggled to get the top section to work.  I was pleased with the pleating which created a linear effect like the rock strata, but it lacked contrast…it was all fairly flat.  To remedy this I stuffed some of the sections and was very pleased with the effect achieved.  As I did this as an afterthought, it was quite hard to stuff some of the sections as I had already embroidered over some of them.  With hindsight, I would lave stuffed the sections from the rear (trapunto) and then done the embroidery over the top to flatten some sections down for contrast.

Module 5 – Chapter 13

Study of three artists

Jennie Rayment

Jennie’s interest in fabric manipulation grew out of a fascination with patchwork quilting in the early ‘90s.  As a teacher of Patchwork, Quilting and Appliqué she found that there was little information on texture and so she created her own techniques.   Jennie devised numerous ways of nipping, tucking, folding and manipulating fabric and has become very well-known as a teacher, lecturer and exhibitor.

Jenny often works in calico in order to let the textures that she creates in fabrics speak for themselves.  The textures are made by very precise tucks and folds, held in place by tiny stitches.  See below an example of Jennie’s work. 

image Image 13.1

Relevance to Module 5:  Jennie uses fabrics and manipulates them i.e folds, twists, tucks to create different textures.  I did the same to create the textures in various samples in Module 5, albeit in a much less formal and less precise manner to create more organic shapes and textures.

I was lucky to take part in one of Jennie’s workshops at the Festival of Quilts a few years ago. 


Michael Brennand-Wood

Michael Brennand -Wood has an international reputation as an innovative and and inspiring textile artist.  Over the last 40 years he has held numerous exhibitions and has also worked as a lecturer at Goldsmiths College, London, and as a curator and arts consultant. 

He has explored and developed his own techniques inventing many new and imaginative ways of integrating textiles with other media such as embroidery, pattern, lace .  He makes elaborate, eye-catching wall-hung pieces that are part sculpture, part textile using a variety of materials ranging from conventional textiles to flags, CDs and badges, the pieces have elaborate visual patterns which mask more profound meanings.  Recent work, inspired by the traditions of floral imagery has utilized computerized machine embroidery, acrylic paint, photography and collage.

image Image 13.2

image Image 13.3

Relevance to Module 5:  Michael creates artworks with highly varied textures some of which are textiles.  Whilst the breadth of materials that he uses is far greater than those that I used in this module, it is relevant as his work shows the added interest that is achieved by varying the textures in a piece of art.

Ann Small

Ann Small is a textile artist, teacher and exhibitor whose work progressed from machine embroidery to fabric manipulation – layering, slashing and manipulating fabrics to create texture, colour and design.   She has taught City and Guilds courses, Degree courses and privately and founded and mentored the smallCHAT exhibiting group and Studio One. 

image Image 13.4


Image 13.5

Relevance to Module 5:  Ann published a book called ‘Layered Cloth’ which I referred to during Module 5.  I found it extremely relevant as she produces beautiful organic looking surfaces through manipulating fabric.  I used an idea from her book in one of my experimental samples, to create fabric book stacks as shown in image 13.5 above.

Module 5 – Chapter 12

Working towards my resolved sample…

I have thoroughly enjoyed this module because of the techniques explored in each chapter, but also because of the connection to a landscape that I love, the West Somerset coastline.  The images below show some of the pages from my sketchbook when I was thinking about the landscape, and how I wanted to portray it in my resolved sample.

image Image 12.1 – sketch of local cliff face and rubbings of fossils found on the beach at Doniford.

I did some research into the geology of the coastline in order to better understand how, and when, it was formed.  Somerset is fortunate to have the studies of a local geologist, Hugh Prudden (see excerpt below).  Whilst I am certainly no expert on geology, I was fascinated to read of the numerous different types of rock, from many different eras, present on Doniford beach.


Image 12.2 – excerpt about Doniford coastline from ‘The Geology of Somerset’ by Hugh Prudden

image Image 12.3 – sketchbook page.  I found many of the geological words and phrases very pleasing and considered adding some of them into the resolved sample.

image Image 12.4

Image 12.4 shows a sketchbook page showing the supercontinent called Pangea before it split into the continents we have today.  The Triassic and Jurassic rocks that we can see today at Doniford beach were once in the middle of the supercontinent, and not coastal at all.  I am intrigued by the thought that the rocks and fossils that I see at Doniford are millions of years old and, when looking at a section which is visible due to recent erosion, I am the first person in the world to see that particular fossil or rock.

I do a lot of my about my creative thinking whilst I am driving.  One morning whilst I was driving to work, I heard an item about a new fossil found on the Dorset coast.   The geologist interviewed for the report said that the rocks were ‘constantly revealing new secrets’.  This resonated with me as it summed up my thoughts on the coastline at Doniford…as each high tide withdraws, the coastline is changed and new rocks and fossils are revealed.  I decided I would like to use this quote in my resolved sample.

 Stitch trial samples

Image 12.5 below revisits the design that from chapter 11 that I decided to use for my resolved sample.

image Image 12.5 – my design for the resolved sample

I identified one of my decorated papers to use to represent each of the four areas in my design, and names them A, B, C and D.

Section A

image Image 12.6 – paper relief for section A.


Image 12.7 – stitch trial using buttonhole stitch.  This didn’t provide the height that I wanted to achieve.  For the next trial I used buttonhole stitch again, but used it to couch some string in place to make a more raised surface, see image 12.8.


Image 12.8 – couching using buttonhole stitch


Image 12.9 – couching using sewing machine


Image 12.10 – my various stitch trials and relief paper.  Image 12.11 below shows the stitch that I decided to use for section A.

imageImage 12.11

Section B

image Image 12.12 – paper relief for section B


Image 12.13 – stitch trial using strips of different natural and synthetic fabrics roughly stitched on to calico backing.   The edges curled up in places thus representing the paper relief quite well.


Stitch trial 12.14 – I used several layers of synthetic and natural fabrics which I then stitched in lines and slashed through to the base.  In one area on the base fabric I embroidered some lettering which was revealed when I cut away the top fabrics. 


Image 12.15 – the trial samples and relief paper together.  I decided to use sample 12.14 in the resolved sample as I thought it showed the linear strips well, and created a high pile which would contrast well with the flatter texture of section A.

Section C

imageImage 12.16 – paper relief sample for section C


Image 12.17 – stitch trial using a piece of linen that had been gathered and the gathers were stitched in place.  This was then used as the top layer for some shaped quilting i.e. block shapes were sandwiched between the top and base layer, and then stitched around with free machine stitch to create the raised blocks.  This technique didn’t create the sharp edges that I wanted for this section.


Image 12.18 – this stitch trial was created using a piece of muslin which had folds and tucks stitched in place.  This was then attached to several layers of wadding to give some height and cut into blocks.  The blocks were attached to a piece of synthetic organza which I had treated with a hot air gun to create wrinkles.


12.19 – various trials – using folds, tucks and small ‘cushions’ made with wadding, calico and linen.  I decided to use the ‘cushions’ in Section C as they had the sharp edges that I was looking for which would contrast well with section B and D either side, but also because they could be stacked on top of each other to create variety in the height of the surface.

Section D

image Image 12.20 – paper relief for section D


Image 12.20 – ‘book stacks’ made from cotton.  These were created by making a series of small booklets which were stitched along the spine and attached to a calico backing.  They were stitched very close together which caused the ‘pages’ to stand upright.  This technique created quite a high surface, but not the irregular folds that are present in image 12.20

image Image 12.21 – cotton lawn, gathered and then hand stitched.  This technique created the folds and flat areas that I was looking for.

image Image 12.22 – cotton lawn; cord applied using a twin needle.  This technique produced too flat a surface, without the irregular folds that are present in image 12.20

I decided to use the technique in 12.12, but to add more stitching to it as shown below in image 12.23, as this created more contrasts between the flat areas and the ripples.

image Image 12.23


Choice of fabrics

I decided the majority of my fabrics would be made of natural fibres, as this would allow me to colour them using natural methods.  To create another connection between my resolved sample, and the original inspiration, I decided to rust die the fabrics using metal objects that I had collected from Doniford Beach over recent years.  My chosen colour palette was grey tones and rust.  I knew from previous experiments that if I used tea to wet the fabrics before rusting, the tannin would react with the iron to create a grey colour on the areas not directly touching the rusted metal.

Synthetic fabrics would be used for some of the layers beneath the natural fabrics so that they can be melted or distorted as required.image

Image 12.24 – my fabrics during the rusting process


Image 12.25 – the dyed fabrics.  I used a variety of fabrics e.g. scrim, muslin, lawn, calico, linen of different weights.  I was very pleased with the variety of shades produced.


Image 12.26 – some of the rust marks created,


Image 12.27 – the string used to bind the fabric to the rusty objects also took the dye colours.  I planned to use this for the couching in Section A.

 Creating the resolved sample

I selected some medium weight calico as the backing for the piece, and marked the design outlines onto it , see image 12.28 below.


Image 12.28

I then copied the design onto some freezer paper (image 12.29)


Image 12.29

The first section I created was section B.  I decided that I would used this section to incorporate the quote ‘Constantly revealing new secrets’ and so hand embroidered this on to the base layer first.  I tacked around the edge of the embroidered quote so that I would know where it was from the reverse.  I placed the freezer paper for section B onto the reverse of the base fabric and drew around it.  I then placed layers of fabric on the right side of the backing fabric and pinned them in place.  Working from the reverse, I stitched lines through the layers of fabric, and along the edge of the embroidered quote.  I then turned the fabric over and slashed through the channels between the stitch lines.

image Image 12.30

image Image 12.31


Image 12.32

Finally, I used a soldering iron to run along the slashed edges to melt some of the synthetic layers in order to create additional textures in the slashes.

Section A

I ironed the freezer paper template onto some rusted linen, and then onto a piece of wool felt.  I bonded the linen and wool together using Bondaweb.


Image 12.33

image Image 12.34 – the base pieces of section A placed on the backing to check their fit.

imageImage 12.35 – I stitched small pieces of scrim to the backing to create a more textured surface.


Image 12.36 – I used some of the dyed string to create rounded shapes which I couched in place using buttonhole stitch and a matching cotton thread.

Section D

I used the freezer paper template to create a backing piece of calico.  I then used several pieces of my dyed fabrics, gathered them, and stitched them to the backing as shown in image 12.37 below.

imageImage 12.37


Image 12.38 – I added some areas of machine stitch to flatten out some areas in contrast to the folds.


Image 12.39 – I then added some Fly Stitch using a grey linen thread, to accentuate the fold shapes.

Section C

I layered some linen, cotton wadding, and a dyed piece of fine linen and stitched a grid as shown in image 12.40. I chose one of the pieces that had the strongest rust colouring as I wanted this to contrast with the greys in the other sections.


Image 12.40


Image 12.41 – I cut along the gridlines to create a set of wadded cushions.

imageImage 12.42 – I added some torn pieces of scrim to the backing for this section, to create a textured background before attaching the cushions.

imageImage  12.43 – an early assemblage of the sections.  The cushions for section C were just pinned in place at this point.  I realised that section A faded into the background and so added some more stitch to it as shown below in image 12.44.

image Image 12.44 – additional buttonhole stitch on the couched areas in different shades of grey and rust.  This provided more definition to the shapes as shown in image 12.45 below.

image Image 12.45 

Image 12.46 shows the piece with all of the sections added.  At this point I was quite happy with the effect, but felt that it needed more work to really accentuate the differences between each section.  I spent a lot of time with the sample pinned to a wall in my workroom just thinking about what was needed.

image Image 12.46

I decided to add some heavy stitching to section A to accentuate the boulder shapes as well as flattening the texture more in order to increase the contrast with Section B.  I used multiple levels of Fly Stitch in a grey linen thread.


Image 12.47

Next I added some Bullion Stitches in a thick grey yarn into the chenille of Section B.  This served to highlight the linear aspect of the section, as well as pushing the fabric in each chenille ‘chanel’ to stand up more thus giving greater height (see image 12.48 below)


Image 12.48

I felt that the blocks in Section C didn’t quite work.  Whilst I wanted them to provide a strong contrast to the other sections, I also needed them to look part of the piece.  I decided to add some stitch in a rust colour behind the blocks to tie them to the base better.  I used loose rows of French Knots (see image 12.49)


Image 12.49

Finally, I wanted section D to have greater definition between the high and low areas.  I added some very heavy areas of stitching following the lines of the folds, again in grey linen thread with elongated Fly Stitches.  This helped, but didn’t completely give the effect that I wanted.  I then decided to stuff some of the raised areas which produced the effect that I required.  See image 12.50 below.


Image 12.50


Image 12.51 – the final piece!

I am really pleased with my final piece.  Whilst it has different shapes and textures between each section, it also has a cohesiveness due to the use of the same palette of colours and fabrics.  I found it interesting to look back to my source photograph (below) and think about how the numerous iterations in paper, stitch, and fabric manipulations have led me to produce a piece which, I think, represents the landscape textures in the photograph very well.


12.52 source photograph.

Module 5 – Chapter 11b


Using some of my decorated papers and source images, I looked at different ways of dividing the images into a series of shapes.

2018-01-04 14.08.40 Image 11.1b – source image


Image 11.2b


Image 11.3b

 image Image 11.4b – source image


Image 11.5b


Image 11.6b


Image 11.7b – source image


Image 11.8b


Image 11.9b


Image 11.10b – source image

Image 11.11b below, shows the design that I decided to use for my resolved sample.

image Image 11.11b – design for resolved sample

The brief for the resolved sample says that a maximum of four techniques should be used when creating the sample, and I felt that this design was simple enough to showcase just four techniques, but also would produce a balanced composition.

Module 5 – Chapter 11a

In preparation for making my design for the final assessed piece, I decorated some papers.  My first batch were flat and were made using inks, bleach,monoprints, and printing using cardboard shapes.  Image 11a.1 below shows the flat papers.

I had decided that my colour scheme would be shades of gray and rust, as these are the colours present in my original source images of the coastal rocks.  I therefore made my papers using this same limited colour palette.

image Image 11a.1 – flat decorated papers.

When designing the papers I referenced the shapes in my source materials, and interpretations of the shapes made in earlier chapters of this module.  Consequently, they are variations on two main themes; the linear rock strata shapes and the rounded cobble type shapes.  By using layers of techniques on each design e.g. ink and bleach, monoprint using a gelli plate, printing using cardboard shapes with acrylic paint,  I produced some papers which I think are lively and have interesting depths.

I then made some textured papers, again, using the same colour palette.

image Image 11a.2 – torn strips of brown parcel paper, curled around a pencil, and then partially stuck down to allow some parts to curl up.  Gesso applied roughly to accentuate shapes.

image Image 11.3a – card torn into block shapes and glued down.  Brushed with dry Brusho ink in rust colour to accentuate the edges.  I felt that this paper was still too flat and so added some torn pieces of scrim as seen below in 11.4a. image Image 11.4a – as above, with scrim added.  I was pleased that when I applied glue to attach the scrim, the moist glue reacted with the dry Brusho ink and created stronger rusty looking areas.

imageImage 11.5a – parcel paper applied to glued backing and pushed into folds.  Roughly painted over with Gesso to accentuate the shapes.  I find this paper really attractive; whilst it is made of scrap paper with very dry textures, it resembles the flowing folds in a sumptuous silk garment.

imageImage 11.6a – strips of torn paper glued to background to create creased texture.  Circles made with glue from a hot glue gun.  Roughly painted over with gesso, then a rust coloured oil pastel was scraped over to accentuate the raised shapes.


Image 11.7a – blocks of foam board were glued to the background. Creased tissue paper was glued over the top and encouraged to create folds.  Painted over with gesso and scraped over with rust coloured oil pastel to accentuate creases.  This created a strongly textured surface with about 8mm height.


Image 11.8a – tissue paper creased and glued to background.  Oil pastel scraped over when dry. I was very pleased with this marble-like texture.

imageImage 11.9a – lines and blobs made with hot glue.  This didn’t really work as it still looks too flat.  Using a creased background would have been more effective.


Image 11.10a – patches of pleated tissue paper glued to background.  Rubbed over with rust coloured pastel when dry.  This created a very subtly textured surface.